Max Hoyt Hommersand

(b. 10 July 1930)

Max H. Hommersand was born in San Diego County, California on 10 July 1930.   He received his B. A. at the University of California, Berkeley in 1954, and his Ph.D. from that same institution in 1958.  The title of his doctoral thesis was “Morphological studies in the Ceramiaceae and Rhodomelaceae”.  Max Hommersand’s area of research is the morphology, systematics and biogeography of marine algae, with emphasis on the red algae. He has a world-wide collection of over thirty thousand specimens of marine algae for use in developmental studies.

Dr. Hommersand is the Curator of Algae at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Herbarium (NCU). In 2013 the National Science Foundation funded the Macroalgal Digitization Project with a goal of imaging, cataloging and georeferencing over 1.1 million algae specimens from 49 herbaria across North America.  NCU is contributing to this effort, and our specimens are available at macroalgae.org

In 2006 Kari KozakWilliam R. Burk and Ian Ewing of the John N. Couch Biology Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill compiled a bibliography of Hommersand’s publications (see below).

Haru “Fran” Chisaki Hommersand, Max’s wife, and their son, Eric A. Hommersand, frequently collected algae with Max.  Fran earned a B.A. in Botany from the University of California in Berkeley, and Phycodrys franiae S-M. Lin & W.A. Nelson is named in her honor.  Species named in honor of Max Hommersand include Centroceras hommersandii Won, T.O. Cho & Fredericq, Dichotomaria hommersandii S.-L. Liu & Show M. Lin, Gelidium hommersandii A.J.K. Millar & D.W. Freshwater, Gracilariopsis hommersandii Gurgel, Fredericq & J.N. Norris, Izziella hommerdandii Showe M. Lin, S.-Y. Yang & Huisman, Nitophyllum hommersandii Showe M. Lin & Fredericq, and Pavlova hommersandii P.H. Campbell.

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Anonymous (2006) Hommersand receives lifetime achievement award. University Gazette 31(1): 8. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Max Hommersand, a biology professor who joined the University more than 46 years ago, recently received the 2005 Award of Excellence from the Phycological Society of America (PSA). Hommersand is a professor emeritus in the biology department. Phycology is the study of algae and the society is the largest publisher of papers on algae in the world.

The award was presented at the international meeting in Durban, South Africa, and recognizes phycologists who have demonstrated sustained scholarly contributions in and impact on the field of phycology over their careers. Honorees have also provided service to the PSA and other phycological societies. “A committee from the society looks over the work of different researchers,” Hommersand explained. “They are looking back over the impact of your work over a lifetime.”

Hommersand’s area of research is the morphology, systematics, and biology of the marine algae (seaweeds), with emphasis on the red algae. He has a collection of over 30,000 specimens of marine algae for use in developmental studies.

“It was a surprise,” Hommersand said of the honor. “I was very pleased to be recognized and placed in the same group as some of my colleagues who have received the award.”

Hommersand came to Carolina in 1959 and stayed here first as an instructor before becoming a professor. He retired in January 1998, but still comes to the office seven days a week, he said. “I have filing cabinets full of unpublished data that keeps me motivated,” he said. “There is so much that has been done by me and my students that is just getting dust. I want to get the unpublished information, from my file cabinets and my head, out. I have the opportunity now that I am retired into this effort.”

His fascination with algae and his distinguished career began more than 60 years ago. “I started with the Natural History Museum in San Diego,” Hommersand said. “This was during World War II, and I took a field trip from the musuem. I was 13 at the time. We arranged to out to the Scripps Institute of Oceanography and we met with researchers. I actually made a collection that I still have. From the time I was 13, I was collecting.” He first researched the organisms while an undergraduate student at the University of California at Berkeley in 1948.

Today, he sees the field continuing to evolve. “A lot of people around the world now are using molecular techniques to look at all algae,” Hommersand said. “There is already a great expansion in the use of molecular tools to study the systematics of algae. More people are collecting with scuba and submersibles in deeper water around the world. A lot of the picture of the classification and distribution of marine algae are starting to come from the newer collections that are being made this way.”

Always a researcher, Hommersand has an idea about where phycology should go in the future. “I think someone should do follow-up research to expeditions from the early 1800’s that went to the remote places of the world,” he said. “Those expeditions were to collect everything under the sun, by the French, British, and Germans. They hit all these little islands in the Southern Hemisphere. Since then, no one has sent a ship around the world to look at those remote areas. It is conceivable to go back and re-survey the areas that were done in the 19th centiry and look at them from a modern perspective. Much could be learned by doing that.”

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Anonymous (2005) PSA Awards of Excellence, 2005: Thanarapu Vedanta Desikachary, Max Hoyt Hommersand, and Frank Eric Round. Phycological Newsletter, a publication of the Phycological Society of America 41(2): 2.

Max, as he is known to most of us, has had (and continues to have) a remarkable career of great significance in terms of teaching, scholarship and service to phycology. He received his Bachelor’s degree from the University of California at Berkeley in Botany in 1954. He received his Doctorate in Botany from the University of California at Berkeley under the aegis of Professor George F. Papenfuss where he produced a massive dissertation on the morphology and taxonomy of selected Ceramiaceae and Rhodomelaceae. In the fall of 1957, Max was awarded a two-year NSF [National Science Foundation] Postdoctoral fellowship from Harvard University. Max has been on the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for over 38 years and has supervised more than 22 doctoral students.

For people who know Max, his being an energetic and active Professor Emeritus is not a great surprise. According to Paul Silva, Max was a precocious high school student the year they met (1946) at the Allan Hancock Foundation. As a young student, Paul encountered Max “reading Fritsch (Structure and Reproduction of the Algae) while eating sandwiches!” Max was fascinated by seaweeds after being introduced to them on nature walks by E. Yale Dawson (following World War II). Actually, Max’s fascination and passion for seaweeds has been his signature trait throughout his life. He has traveled the world collecting material for his phycological studies.

Many contemporaries of Max consider him to be one of the great phycological intellects of the last half century. He and his many collaborators have had unparalleled contributions to the fields of seaweed biogeography and red algal systematics. He has published more than 68 major scientific papers. His evolution from a classical macro-algal taxonomist to one of the worlds’ leaders in using and interpreting molecular data together with more classical observations on algal morphology and reproduction is unique among his generation of phycologists. According to Mike Guiry, “the significance of the development of the female reproductive apparatus before and after fertilization was first recognized by Schmitz in Germany, pursued by Kylin in Sweden, and by Papenfuss in Berkeley, but it was Max and his co-workers who have striven to establish the value of the hypotheses.”

Perhaps the last 15 years have been most significant for Max in terms of his professional accomplishments. Working with a number of colleagues, Max has significantly altered our genetic level understanding of the classical Order Gigartinales. He has revised the taxonomic understanding of key genera in the Ceramiales, Gracilariales and Gelidiales, and improved our understanding of red algal phylogeny and phylogeography. Max has published seminal papers highlighting the information to be gleaned by marrying his extensive knowledge of marine floras and in particular, the red algae, with what we know of plat tectonic movements. He and his co-workers have used the huge potential of DNA sequences in constructing phylogenetic hypotheses. As Steve Murray writes, “today, almost 50 years following the award of his dissertation, Max is at the top of his game and continues to impact phycology.”

Max continues to be a model and an inspiration to a new generation of scientists in phycology from around the world. Max Hoyt Hommersand has demonstrated the very essence of what it means to be nominated and receive the PSA [Phycological Society of America] Award of Excellence.

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A Bibliography of the Publications of Max H. Hommersand
Compiled by Kari A. Kozak, William R. Burk, and Ian Ewing University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill [in 2006]
Volume 1
1963
The morphology and classification of some Ceramiaceae and Rhodomelaceae. University of California Publications in Botany 35: 165-366.
Some effects of monochromatic light on oxygen evolution and carbon dioxide fixation in Chlorella pyrenoidosa, pp. 381-390. In Committee on Photobiology of the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council (editor), Photosynthetic mechanisms in green plants, Publication 1145. Washington: National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council.
1965
(with Kennith V. Thimann). Terminal respiration of vegetative cells and zygospores in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Plant Physiology 40: 1220-1227.
1966
Review of Jerome L. Rosenberg. 1965. Photosynthesis. Bioscience 16: 128.
1967
[Abstract]. Parameters of oxygen evolution in Elodea, p. 267. In Proceedings: abstracts of papers and addresses presented at the 64th Annual Convention of the Association of Southern Agricultural Workers, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, January 30-February 1, 1967. [s.l.: Association of Southern Agricultural Workers].
1968
Review of E. Yale Dawson. 1966. Seashore plants of Southern California. Environment Southwest 402: 3.
1969
[Abstract]. Perspectives in algal phylogeny, Abstract 20. In Conference on Phylogenesis and Morphogenesis in the Algae, Monday, December 15, Tuesday, December 16, and Wednesday, December 17, 1969. New York: The New York Academy of Sciences, Section of Biological and Medical Sciences.
1970
(with D. W. Ott). Development of the carposporophyte of Kallymenia reniformis (Turner) J. Agardh. Journal of Phycology 6: 322-331.
(with Charles F. Rhyne). Studies on Ulva and other benthonic marine algae receiving treated sewage in ponds and in Calico Creek at Morehead City, North Carolina, pp. 112-132. In H. T. Odum and A. F. Chestnut (editors), Studies of marine estuarine ecosystems developing with treated sewage wastes. Annual Report for 1969-1970 to National Science Foundation, Sea Grant Project Division, Grant No. GH-18; North Carolina Board of Science and Technology, Grant No. 180 and No. 232. Chapel Hill, N.C.; Morehead City, N.C.: Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina.
1971
(with Richard B. Searles). Bibliography on Rhodophyta, pp. 760-767. In James R. Rosowski and Bruce C. Parker (editors), Selected papers in phycology. Lincoln, Nebraska: Department of Botany, University of Nebraska.
(with Charles F. Rhyne). Laboratory studies concerning the growth and reproduction in the seaweed, Ulva curvata, pp. 337-345. In E. J. Kuenzler and A. F. Chestnut (editors), Structure and functioning of estuarine ecosystems exposed to treated sewage wastes. Annual Report for 1970-1971 to National Oceanographic [ie, Oceanic] and Atmospheric Agency [ie, Adminstration], Office of Sea Grant Programs, Grant No. GH103, Project UNC-10. Chapel Hill, N.C.; Morehead City, N.C.: Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina.
(with David M. Talbert). Laboratory studies on the growth and nutrition of Monodus from the treated sewage ponds in Morehead City, pp. 174-181. In E. J. Kuenzler and A. F. Chestnut (editors), Structure and functioning of estuarine ecosystems exposed to treated sewage wastes. Annual Report for 1970-1971 to National Oceanographic [i.e., Oceanic] and Atmospheric Agency [ie, Adminsitration], Office of Sea Grant Programs, Grant No. GH103, Project UNC-10. Chapel Hill, N.C.; Morehead City, N.C.: Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina.
1972
Algae, pp. 106-112. In Staff of the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology (compilers), McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 1971. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Taxonomic and phytogeographic relationships of warm temperate marine algae occurring in Pacific North America and Japan, pp. 66-71. In Kazutosi Nisizawa (editor), Proceedings of the Seventh International Seaweed Symposium. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.
1973
(with Yuan-Shen Huang). Cytological and biochemical studies on Monodus from the treated sewage ponds in Morehead City, pp. 15-32. In E. J. Kuenzler, A. F. Chestnut and C. M. Weiss, Structure and functioning of estuarine ecosystems exposed to treated sewage wastes III. 1971-1972. Sea Grant Publication UNC SG 73-10. Chapel Hill, N.C.: Sea Grant Program, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina.
1974
(with Neil G. Grant). The respiratory chain of Chlorella protothecoides: I. Inhibitor responses and cytochrome components of whole cells. Plant Physiology 54: 50-56.
(with Neil G. Grant). The respiratory chain of Chlorella protothecoides: II. Isolation and characterization of mitochondria. Plant Physiology 54: 57-59.
(with Donald W. Ott). Vaucheriae of North Carolina. I. Marine and brackish water species. Journal of Phycology 10: 373-385.
1975
(with Thomas V. Marsho). Slow 514 nm absorption phases and oxygen exchange transients in Ulva. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 376: 354-365.
1978
(with J. G. Aghajanian). The fine structure of the pit connections of Batrachospermum sirodotii Skuja. Protoplasma 96: 247-265.
1980
(with John G. Aghajanian). Growth and differentiation of axial and lateral filaments in Batrachospermum sirodotii (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 16: 15-28.
1981
[Abstract]. Biogeography and phylogeny of the families of Rhodophyceae, a model based on plate tectonics, p. 174. In D. J. Carr(editor), XIII International Botanical Congress, Sydney Australia, 21-28 August, 1981. Sydney, Australia: Australian Academy of Science.
[Abstract]. (with G. L. Leister). Biogeography of the family Gigartinaceae in subarctic waters, p. 174. In D. J. Carr(editor), XIII International Botanical Congress, Sydney Australia, 21-28 August, 1981. Sydney, Australia: Australian Academy of Science.
(with John A. West). Chapter 4: Rhodophyta: life histories, pp. 133-193. In Chistopher S. Lobban and Michael J. Wynne (editors), The biology of the seaweeds. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
[Abstract]. Evolution of families and genera of red algae in relation to their phytogeography, p. 11. In Abstracts of papers and posters to be presented at the 20th Northeast Algal Symposium, April 11-12, 1981. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Marine Biological Laboratory.
(with Mary F. Hedberg and Yuan-Shen Huang). Size of the chloroplast genome in Codium fragile. Science 213: 445-447.
1982
(with Paul W. Gabrielson). The Atlantic species of Solieria (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta): their morphology, distribution, and affinities. Journal of Phycology 18: 31-45.
[Abstract]. Characterization of the Nitophyllum-group, Delesseriaceae, p. 10. In Abstracts of papers and posters to be presented at the 21st Northeast Algal Symposium May 1-2, 1982. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Marine Biological Laboratories.
[Abstract]. Four phylogenetic lines in the Nitophylloideae, Delesseriaceae, p. a22. In First International Phycological Congress 1982, St. John’s Newfoundland,
Canada, August 8th – 14th, Scientific Programme and Abstracts. [s.l.: International Phycological Congress].
(with Paul W. Gabrielson). The morphology of Agardhiella subulata representing the Agardhielleae, a new tribe in the Solieriaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 18: 46-58.M
(with Lynda J. Goff). Reproductive development of the parasitic red alga Gardneriella tuberifera (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales). Journal of Phycology 18: 295-304.
1984
(with R. B. Searles and C. D. Amsler). The occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides and C. taylorii (Chlorophyta) in North Carolina. Botanica Marina 27: 185-187.
1985
[Abstract]. Biogeographic affinities of the South African red algal flora, p. 68. In Book of Abstracts, Second International Phycological Congress, Copenhagen, 4-10 August, 1985. [Copenhagen]: Institut for Sporeplanter, University of Copenhagen.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq). Development of the female reproductive system in Gelidium before and after fertilization, p. 68. In Book of Abstracts, Second International Phycological Congress, Copenhagen, 4-10 August, 1985. [Copenhagen]: Institut for Sporeplanter, University of Copenhagen.
Abstract]. (with Suzanne Fredericq). Development of the carposporophyte in Gelidium versicolor from South Africa, p. 11. In Program and Abstracts, 24th Northeast Algal Symposium, April 27-28, 1985, Woods Hole. [Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Northeast Algal Symposium].
Volume 2
1986
The biogeography of the South African marine red algae: a model. Botanica Marina 29: 257-270.
[Abstract]. Developmental strategies of the carposporophyte in Cryptonemiales and Gigartinales. In Program and Abstracts, 25th Northeast Algal Symposium, April 19-20, 1986, Woods Hole. [Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Northeast Algal Symposium].
[Abstract]. (with Suzanne Fredericq). Morphology, systematics and biogeography of Myriogramme (Delesseriaceae). In Program and Abstracts, 25th Northeast Algal Symposium, April 19-20, 1986, Woods Hole. [Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Northeast Algal Symposium].
1987
(with R. E. Norris and S. Fredericq). Gelidium pteridifolium (Rhodophyceae), a new species from Natal and the eastern Cape. South African Journal of Botany 53: 375-380.
1988
(with In Kyu Lee and John A. West). Binghamiopsis caespitosa gen. et sp. nov. (Lomentariaceae, Rhodophyceae) from the Eastern Pacific. The Korean Journal of Phycology 3: 1-13.
(with Suzanne Fredericq). An investigation of cystocarp development in Gelidium pteridifolium with a revised description of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta). Phycologia 27: 254-272.
[Abstract]. (with Suzanne Fredericq). Nutritive tissues of the Floridean cystocarp, p. 19. In Abstracts, Third International Phycological Congress, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, 14-20 August, 1988. [s.l.: International Phycological Congress].
1989
Biogeography of the marine red algae of the North Atlantic Ocean, pp. 349-410. In David J. Garbary and G. Robin South (editors), Evolutionary biogeography of the marine algae of the North Atlantic. NATO Advanced Science Institute, Series G: Ecological Sciences, vol. 22. New York, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Comparative morphology and taxonomic status of Gracilariopsis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 25: 228-241.
(with Suzanne Fredericq and James N. Norris). Morphological observations on the adelphoparasite Gracilariophila oryzoides (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Japanese Journal of Phycology (Sôrui) 37: 167-179.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq). Morphology and systematics of Holmsella pachyderma (Reinsch) Sturch a parasite of Gracilaria and Gracilariopsis from Great Britain and Ireland, p. 4. In Program and Abstracts, Twenty-Eighth Northeast Algal Symposium, Woods Hole, April 29-30, 1989. [Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Northeast Algal Symposium].
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Proposal of the Glacilariales ord. nov. (Rhodophyta) based on an analysis of the reproductive development of Gracilaria verrucosa. Journal of Phycology 25: 213-227.
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Reproductive morphology and development of the cystocarp in Curdiea flabellata Chapman (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). New Zealand Journal of Botany 27: 521-530.
(with Mark E. Knauss). Vegetative and reproductive development of Halarachnion ligulatum (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 24: 39-52.
1990
(with Roy J. Coomans). Chapter 12: Vegetative growth and organization, pp. 275-304. In Kathleen M. Cole and Robert G. Sheath (editors), Biology of the red algae. New York: Cambridge University Press.
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Chapter 13: Sexual reproduction and cystocarp development, pp. 305-345. In Kathleen M. Cole and Robert G. Sheath (editors), Biology of the red algae. New York: Cambridge University Press.
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Diagnoses and key to the genera of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 204/205: 173-178.
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Morphology and systematics of Holmsella pachyderma (Pterocladiophilaceae, Gracilariales). British Phycological Journal 25: 39-51.
Review of Wm. J. Woelkerling. 1988. The coralline red algae: an analysis of the genera and subfamilies of nongeniculate Corallinaceae. Phycologia 29: 126-127.
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Taxonomy of Melanthalia obtusata var. abscissa and its placement in the Gracilariales (Rhodophyta). Cryptogamic Botany 2: 4-11.
1991
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq). Biogeographic affinities of the red algae of the temperate North Atlantic Ocean. In Richard H. Fralick and James Sears (convenors), Program and Abstracts, 30th Northeast Algal Symposium, April 27th and 28th, 1991. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Northeast Algal Symposium.
Review of K. Lüning. 1990. Seaweeds: their environment, biogeography, and ecophysiology. American Scientist 79: 270-271.
[Abstract]. (with Geoffrey L. Leister). “Iridaea” from Pacific North America compared to Iridaea cordata from South America. Journal of Phycology 27 (3 suppl.): 43.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq). Development of the cystocarp in Gigartina pistillata and G. teedii from France. Journal of Phycology 27 (3 suppl.): 22.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq). Systematics and biogeography of the Cystocloniaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 27 (3 suppl.): 32.
1992
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq). Cystocarp development in Mastocarpus stellatus (Petrocelidaceae, Gigartinales), p. 78. In Abstracts and Programme, XIVth International Seaweed Symposium, Brittany, France, 1992. [s.l.: International Seaweed Symposium].
[Abstract]. (with M. D. Guiry). New perspectives in the taxonomy of the Gigartinaceae, p. 85. In Abstracts and Programme, XIVth International Seaweed Symposium, Brittany, France, 1992. [s.l.: International Seaweed Symposium].
(with S. Fredericq and J. Brodie). Developmental morphology of Chondrus crispus (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 31: 542-563.
(with S. Fredericq and J. Cabioch). Developmental morphology of Gigartina pistillata (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 31: 300-325.
(with S. Fredericq and G. L. Leister). Morphology and systematics of Acanthococcus antarcticus (Cystocloniaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 31: 101-118.
[Abstract]. (with D. Wilson Freshwater and Mark W. Chase). Molecular systematics of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) based upon rbcL sequence analysis. Journal of Phycology 28 (3 suppl.): 4.
[Abstract]. (with Suzanne Fredericq). The position of Rhodoglossum californicum in the Gigartinaceae. Journal of Phycology 28 (3 suppl.): 3.
1993
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq and M. E. Ramírez). New insights regarding the taxonomic position of Chondriella and the Chondriellaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), p. 8. In [Program and Abstracts], Northeast Algal Symposium 1993, April 24-25, 1993, Marine Biological Laboratories, Woods Hole. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Northeast Algal Society.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq). Phylogenetic systematics of the Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta) in California, p. 24. In [Program and Abstracts], Northeast Algal Symposium 1993, April 24-25, 1993, Marine Biological Laboratories, Woods Hole. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Northeast Algal Society.
(with Michael D. Guiry, Suzanne Fredericq and Geoffrey L. Leister). New perspectives in the taxonomy of the Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Hydrobiologia 260/261: 105-120.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq and D. W. Freshwater). Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of the Gigartinaceae and Gelidiaceae based on comparative morphology and direct seqence analysis of the rbcL gene, p. 22. In Programme, Vth International Seaweed Biogeography Workshop, Cape Town, Botany Department, University of Cape Town, 12th-15th December 1993. [s.l.: International Seaweed Biogeography Workshop].
(with Christine A. Maggs). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1: Rhodophyta. Part 3A: Ceramiales. London: HMSO. xv, 444, 1 map.
1994
(with D. Wilson Freshwater, Suzanne Fredericq, Bradley S. Butler and Mark W. Chase). A gene phylogeny of the red algae (Rhodophyta) based on plastid rbcL. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91: 7281-7285.
[Abstract]. A new era in algal systematics: Rhodophyta, p. 13. In Abstracts: Fifth International Phycological Congress, 26 June to 2 July, 1994, Qingdao, Shandong, P.R. China. [s.l.: International Phycological Congress].
[Abstract]. (with D. Wilson Freshwater and Suzanne Fredericq). Phylogenetic analysis of the Gelidiales: new implications, p. 9. In Abstracts: Fifth International Phycological Congress, 26 June to 2 July, 1994, Qingdao, Shandong, P.R. China. [s.l.: International Phycological Congress].
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq and D. W. Freshwater). Systematics of the Gigartinaceae-complex based on development morphology and rbcL sequence analysis, p. 9. In Abstracts: Fifth International Phycological Congress, 26 June to 2 July, 1994, Qingdao, Shandong, P.R. China. [s.l.: International Phycological Congress].
[Abstract]. (with D. W. Freshwater and S. Fredericq). Phylogenetic analysis of the Gelidiales: new implications, p. a-28. In Conference Program and Book of Abstracts: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography and Phycological Society of America 1994 Joint Meeting, June 12-16, 1994, Miami, Florida, University of Miami/James L. Knight International Center. [s.l.: s.n.].
(with S. Fredericq and D. W. Freshwater). Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of the Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) based on sequence analysis of rbcL. Botanica Marina 37: 193-203.
Volume 3
1995
[Abstract]. An assessment of the taxonomic position of Pterocladia capillacea based on morphological and molecular evidence. In Xth Conference of the Australasian Society of Phycology and Aquatic Botany, Stradboke I. Queensland, 7-9 July. [original not seen].
[Abstract]. A model of the biogeography of the marine red algae of the southern ocean based on morphological and molecular evidence, p. 71. In Abstracts and Programme: XVth International Seaweed Symposium, January 1995, Valdivia, Chile. [s.l.: International Seaweed Association].
(with D. Wilson Freshwater and Suzanne Fredericq). A molecular phylogeny of the Gelidiales (Rhodophyta) based on analysis of plastid rbcL nucleotide sequences. Journal of Phycology 31: 616-632.
Review of H.B.S. Womersley. 1994. The marine benthic flora of Southern Australia. Rhodophyta. Part IIIA Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (Acrochaetiales, Nemaliales, Gelidiales, Hildenbrandiales, and Gigartinales sensu lato). Phycologia 34: 251-253.
1996
(with Suzanne Fredericq and D. Wilson Freshwater). The molecular systematics of some agar- and carrageenan-containing marine red algae based on rbcL sequence analysis. Hydrobiologia 326/327: 125-135.
[Abstract]. (with Suzanne Fredericq and Jeffrey R. Hughey). New perspectives in the phylogenetic, systematic and biography of the red algal order Gigartinales with special emphasis on representatives from Pacific North America, p. P-22: Conferencia Magistral. In II Congreso Mexicano de Ficología, Sociedad Ficológica de México, A.C., Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, 4 al 7 Noviembre, Ensenada, B.C. [s.l.: Sociedad Ficológia de México].
(with S. Fredericq). Vegetative and reproductive development of Pterocladia capillacea (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) from La Jolla, California. Nova Hedwigia 112: 147-160.
[Abstract]. (with Suzanne Fredericq, James N. Norris, Elizabeth A. Zimmer and D. Wilson Freshwater). A phylogeny for the Solieriaceae and related red algal families inferred from rbcL sequence analysis and morphological evidence. Journal of Phycology 32 (3 suppl.): 22.
[Abstract]. (with Suzanne Fredericq, James N. Norris, Elizabeth A. Zimmer and D. Wilson Freshwater). Proposal of the Dumontiales ord. nov. and reinstatement of the Sphaerococcales Sjoestedt emend. based on family complexes previously placed in the marine red algal order Gigartinales. Journal of Phycology 32 (3 suppl.): 16.
1997
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Characterization of Myriogramme livida, Myriogrammeae trib. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 33: 106-121.
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Characterization of Schizoseris condensate, Schizoserideae trib. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 33: 475-490.
Postfertilization development and the nature of the connecting cell in Aglaothamnion halliae (Callithamnieae, Ceramiaceae). Cryptogamie-Algologie 18: 263-271.
(with B. Santelices). Pterocladiella, a new genus in the Gelidiaceae (Gediliales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 36: 114-119.
[Abstract]. (with M. E. Volovsek and S. Fredericq). A model for the phylogenetic systematics of the Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) based on cystocarp development. Phycologia 36 (4 suppl.): 40-41.
1998
(with Sarah M. Wilson and Gerald T. Kraft). Morphology and systematics of Rhodocallis elegans, Rhodocallideae, trib. nov. (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta), from southeastern Australia. Journal of Phycology 34: 865-879.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq). The phylogeny and biogeography of the Solieriaceae (Rhodophyta) based on rbcL sequences and morphological evidence, Abstract 22. In XVIth International Seaweed Symposium: Programme, Abstracts, and Directory, Cebu City, Philippines, April 12-17. [s.l.: International Seaweed Association].
Review of Isabella A. Abbott (editor). 1997. Taxonomy of economic seaweeds: with reference to some pacific species, vol. 6. Phycologia 37: 154-155.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq and J. Hughey). Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of Gigartinaceae based on rbcL sequence analysis and morphological evidence. Journal of Phycology 34 (3 suppl.): 24-25.
1999
(with Gerald T. Kraft, Lawrence M. Liao, Alan J. K. Millar, Eric G. G. Coppejans and D. Wilson Freshwater). Marine benthic red algae (Rhodophyta) from Bulusan, Sorsogon Province, southern Luzon, Philippines. Philippine Scientist 36: 1-50.
(with Suzanne Fredericq and D. Wilson Freshwater). Observations on the phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of the Solieriaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) inferred from rbcL sequences and morphological evidence. Hydrobiologia 398/399: 25-38.
(with Suzanne Fredericq, D. Wilson Freshwater and Jeffery Hughey). Recent developments in the systematics of the Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) based on rbcL sequence analysis and morphological evidence. Phycological Research 47: 139-151.
Review of I.A. Abbott. 1999. Marine red algae of the Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Phycology 35: 1338-1340.
[Abstract]. “Red Plants”. Journal of Phycology 35 (3 suppl.): 15.
2000
[Abstract]. (with S. M. Lin and S. Fredericq). Phylogenetic and taxonomic reassessment of the Delessericeae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) based on two molecular data sets. Journal of Phycology 36 (3 suppl.): 44.
[Abstract]. (with M. E. Volovsek and P. Manos). The phylogenetics of Acrochaetiales revisted: inferences from rbcL and chloroplast encoded 23S rRNA sequence analysis. Journal of Phycology 36 (3 suppl.): 68-69.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq and D. W. Freshwater). Significance of phylogenetic systematics for the biogeography of the marine red algae. Journal of Phycology 36 (3 suppl.): 31.
[Abstract]. (with J. R. Hughey). A systematic study of Gigartinaceae from Pacific North America based on molecular and morphological evidence. Journal of Phycology 36 (3 suppl.): 32.
2001
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq). Biogeography of the red seaweeds of the South African west coast: a molecular approach, p. 69. In Programme and Abstracts, XVIIth International Seaweed Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 28 January-2 February. [s.l.: International Seaweed Association].
(with S. M. Lin and G. T. Kraft). Characterization of Hemineura frondosa and the Hemineureae trib. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from southern Australia. Phycologia 40: 135-146.
(with John A. West and G. C. Zuccarello). Morphology and reproduction of Bostrychia pinnata (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales) in laboratory culture. Phycological Research 49: 285-297.
(with P. W. Gabrielson). Review of John M. Huisman. 2000. Marine plants of Australia. Journal of Phycology 37: 350-351.
(with Jeffery R. Hughey and Paul C. Silva). Solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems in pacific Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta) using DNA from type material. Journal of Phycology 37: 1091-1109.
(with Showe-Mei Lin and Suzanne Fredericq). Systematics of the Delesseriaceae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) based on large subunit rDNA and rbcL sequences, including the Phycodryoideae, subfam. nov. Journal of Phycology 37: 881-899.
[Abstract]. Biogeography of marine red algae: myths and realities. Journal of Phycology 37 (3 suppl.): 24-25.
[Abstract]. (with Suzanne Fredericq). Euptiloteae, a new tribe primarily from the southern hemisphere (subfam. Callithamnioideae Itono, Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 40 (4 suppl.): 22.
2002
(with Jeffery R. Hughey and Paul C. Silva). ITS1 sequences of type specimens of Gigartina and Sarcothalia and their significance for the classification of South African Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 37: 209-216.
(with Lynne McIvor, Christine A. Maggs and Michael D. Guiry). Phylogenetic analysis of the geographically disjunct genus Osmundea Stackhouse (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta). Constancea 83: 9.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/constancea/83/mcivor_etal/osmundea.html. (Date Accessed: June 13, 2006).
[Abstract]. (with S. -M Lin and S. Fredericq). Apoglosseae trib. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) based on two molecular datasets and cystocarp development. Journal of Phycology 38 (1 suppl.): 23-24.
[Abstract]. (with S. Fredericq and D. W. Freshwater). Classification of the red algal family Ceramiaceae at the subfamily and tribal levels. Japanese Journal of Phycology (Sôrui) 50: 46.
2003
(with Suzanne Fredericq). Biogeography of the marine red algae of the South African west coast: a molecular approach, pp. 325-336. In Anthony R. O. Chapman, Robert J. Anderson, Valerie J. Vreeland and Ian R. Davison (editors), Seventeenth International Seaweed Symposium, Proceedings of the XVIIth International Seaweed Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 28 January – 2 February 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(with Lawrence M. Liao). A morphological study and taxonomic reassessment of the generitype species in the Gracilariaceae. Journal of Phycology 39: 1207-1232.
Review of H.B.S. Womersley. 2003. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia, Rhodophyta, Part IIID, Ceramiales-Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodymelaceae. Journal of Phycology 39: 1001-1004.
(with Carlos Frederico D. Gurgel, Lawrence M. Liao and Suzanne Fredericq). Systematics of Gracilariopsis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) based on rbcL sequence analyses and morphological evidence. Journal of Phycology 39: 154-171.
[Abstract]. (with T. O. Cho, S. Fredericq and S. M. Boo). Proposal of a new red algal genus in the Ceramieae (Ceramiaceae, Ceramiales). Journal of Phycology 39 (1 suppl.): 9-10.
2004
(with Gary W. Saunders). Assessing red algal supraordinal diversity and taxonomy in the context of contemporary systematic data. American Journal of Botany 91: 1494-1507.
(with Showe-Mei Lin and Suzanne Fredericq). Augophyllum, a new genus of the Delesseriaceae (Rhodophyta) based on rbcL sequence analysis and cystocarp development. Journal of Phycology 40: 962-976.
(with Oliver De Clerck and Eric Coppejans). A morphological study and taxonomic revision of Euptilota (Cermiaceae, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 39: 369-393.
[Abstract]. (with D. W. Freshwater, T. -O Cho and S. Fredericq). The Ptiloteae (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) in the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans, pp. 59-60. In Programme and Abstracts, XVIII International Seaweed Symposium, Bergen, Norway, June 20-25. [s.l.: International Seaweed Association].
(with Showe-Mei Lin and Suzanne Fredericq). Two new species of Martensia (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from Kenting National Park, southern Taiwan. Phycologia 43: 13-25.
[Abstract]. (with D. W. Freshwater). “A seaweed goes to war” – Taxonomic status of the agarophyte Gracilaria “confervoides” harvested in North Carolina during WWII. Journal of Phycology 40 (1 suppl.): 8.
2006
(with John A. West, Giuseppe C. Zuccarello, Ulf Karsten and Solvig Görs). Observations on Bostrychia radicosa comb. nov. (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycological Research 54: 1-14.
(with D. W. Freshwater, M. Lopez-Bautesta and S. Fredericq). Proposal of the Euptiloteae Hommersand et Fredericq, trib. nov. and transfer of some Southern Hermisphere Ptiloteae to the Callithamnieae (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 42: 203-225.

+++++

publications since Kozak et al. 2006 bibliography:

Lin, Showe-Mei and Max H. Hommersand 2007.  Conspecificity of Holmesia neurymenioides with Reinboldiella warburgii (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from northeastern Taiwan on the basis of cystocarp development and rbcL sequence analysis.  Phycologia 46(3):  247-256.

Hughey, Jeffery R. and Max H. Hommersand.  2008.  Morphological and molecular systematic study of Chondracanthus (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta) from Pacific North America.  Phycologia 47(2):  124-155.

Cho, Tae Oh, Max H. Hommersand, Boo Yeon Won and Suzanne Fredericq.  2008.  Generic boundaries and phylogeny of Campylaephora (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta), including Campylaephora californica (Farlow) comb. nov.  Phycologia 47(3):  321-333.

Cho, Tae Oh, Sung Min Boo, Max H. Hommersand, Christine A. Maggs, Lynne McIvor and Suzanne Fredericq.  2008.  Gayliella gen. nov. in the tribe Ceramieae (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta) based on molecular and morphological evidence.  J. of Phycology 44(3):  721-738.

Rodriguez-Prieto, Conxi and Max H. Hommersand.  2009.  Behaviour of the nuclei in pre- and postfertilization stages in Kallymenia (Kallymeniaceae, Rhodophyta).  Phycologia 48(3):  138-155.

Hommersand, Max H. and D. Wilson Freshwater.  2009.  Gracilaria hummii sp. nov. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), a new name for the agarophyte “Gracilaria confervoides” harvested in North Carolina during World War II.  J. of Phycology 45(2):  503-516.

Lin, Showe-Mei, Max H. Hommersand, Suzanne Fredericq and Olivier DeClerck.  2009.  Characterization of Martensia (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) based on morphological and molecular study of the type species, M. elegans and M. natalensis sp. nov. from South Africa.  J. of Phycology 45(3):  678-691.

Hughey, Jeffery R. and Max H. Hommersand.  2010.  A molecular study of Mazzaella (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta) and morphological investigation of the splendens clade from Pacific North America.  Phycologia 49(2):  113-135.

Hommersand, Max H., Geoffrey L. Leister, Maria Eliana Ramirez, Paul W. Gabrielson and Wendy A. Nelson.  2010.  A morphological and phylogenetic study of Glaphyrosiphon gen. nov. (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) based on Grateloupia intestinalis with descriptions of two new species:  Glaphyrosiphon lindaueri from New Zealand and Glaphyrosiphon chilensis from Chile.  Phycologia 49(6):  554-573.

Nelson, Wendy A., Geoffrey L. Leister and Max H. Hommersand.  2011.  Psilophycus alveatus gen. et comb. Nov., a basal taxon in the Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta) from New Zealand.  Phycologia 50(3):  219-231.

Hommersand, Max H., Richard L. Moe, Charles D. Amsler and Suzanne Fredericq.  2011.  Notes on the systematics and biogeographical relationships of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Rhodophyta with descriptions of four new genera and five new species.  IN The Biology of Polar Benthic Algae, ed. Christian Wiencke.  Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin/New York.

ThrainssonSigurdur A. and Max H. Hommersand.  2012.  New features in the vegetative and reproductive morphology of Cystoclonium purpureum (Cystocloniaceae, Rhodophyta) from the North Atlantic Ocean.  European Journal of Phycology 47(4):  384-392.

Lin, Showe-Mei, Roberta D’Archino and Max Hommersand.  2012.  A new method of cystocarp development in the red algal genus Callophyllis (Kallymeniaceae) from Chile.  J. of Phycology 48(3):  784-792.

Lin, Showe-Mei, Wendy A. Nelson and Max H. Hommersand.  2012.  Hymenenopsis heterophylla gen. et sp. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from New Zealand, based on a red alga previously known as Hymenena palmata f. marginata sensu Kylin, with emphasis on its cystocarp development.  Phycologia 51(1):  62-73.

Hommersand, Max H. and Conxi Rodgriguez-Prieto.  2012.  Developmental morphology and systematics of Trematocarpus dichotomus (Sarcodiaceae, Rhodophyta) from Chile.  Phycologia 51(5):  586-595.

Rodriguez-Prieto, Conxi, D. Wilson Freshwater and Max H. Hommersand.  2013.  Vegetative and reproductive development of Mediterranean Gulsonia nodulosa (Cermiales, Rhodophyta) and its genetic affinities.  Phycologia 52(4):  357-367.

Rodrigues-Prieto, Conxi, Gianfranco SartoniShowe-mei Lin and Max H. Hommersand.  2013.  Comparative morphology and systematics of Chondrymenia lobate from the Mediterranean Sea and a phylogeny of the Chondrymeniaceae fam. nov. (Rhodophyta) based on rbcL sequence analysis.  2013.  European Journal of Phycology 48(2):  188-199.

Rodriguez-Prieto, Conxi and Max H. Hommersand.  2014.  Developmental morphology and systematics of Trematocarpus dichotomus (Sarcodiaceae, Rhodophyta) from Chile.  Phycologia 51(5):  586-595.

Rodriguez-Prieto, Conxi, D. Wilson Freshwater and Max H. Hommersand.  2014.  Morphology and phylogenetic systematics of Ptilocladiopsis horrida and proposal of the Ptilocladiopsidaceae fam. nov. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 53(4):  383-395.

Rodriguez-Prieto, Conxi, D. Wilson Freshwater, Max H. Hommersand.  2016.  Gracilaria corallicola and G. multipartita (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), two related flattened European species.  European Journal of Phycology 51(4):  444-460.

Lin, Show-Mei and Max H. Hommersand.  2016.  Developmental morphology and phylogeny of Paraglossum amsleri sp. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta), a species from Antarctica previously known as Delesseria lancifolia.  Phycologia 55(1):  21-32.

Hughey, Jeffery R., Max H. Hommersand, Paul W. Gabrielson, Kathy Ann Miller and Timothy Fuller.  2017.  Analysis of the complete plastomes of three species of Membranoptera (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from Pacific North America.  J. of Phycology  53(1):  3243.  (DOI:  10.1111/jpy.12472)

Hommersand, Max H. and D. Wilson Freshwater.  Morphology and molecular systematics of the Dasyptileae, a new tribe in the Callithamniaceae (Ceramiales) containing Dasyptilon and Plumariopsis.  Abstract, Phycological Society of America Meeting, June 2018 in Monterey, California, USA.